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Liver Cancer

Liver is situated inside the rib cage in the upper right side abdomen. The liver it has four lobes and is the largest solid organ in the body. Detoxification (i.e. removal of waste products and worn-out cells from the blood), protein synthesis, and production of bio-chemicals essential for digestion are some of its functions.

What is Liver Cancer

Abnormal growth of cancerous cell in Liver is termed Liver Cancer. The liver consists of different cell types viz. bile ducts, liver cells, blood vessels, and fat-storing cells. Hepatocellular cancer is the majority of primary liver cancers (over 90%-95%) and it arises from liver cells. The third most common cancer in the world is Liver cancer. Parts of Africa and Asia than in North or South America and Europe have more incidences of this disease.

Causes of Liver Cancer.

Most liver cancer as mentioned above are Hepatocellular carcinoma. Men have higher incidence rate of liver cancer as compared to women. It commonly affects people from ages 50 - 60.

Cirrhosis i.e. scarring of the liver is the major cause of liver cancer. It may be caused by:
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Diseases causing long-term inflammation of the liver
  • Infection of Hepatitis B or C virus
  • Too much iron in the body (hemochromatosis)

Liver Cancer Symptoms

The liver cancer symptoms are often not very apparent or clear, some of the indications of Liver cancer are:
  • pain or tenderness in abdomen, especially in the upper-right part
  • poor appetite and loss in weight
  • Fever, Fatigue and Nausea
  • Bruising or bleeding easily
  • abdomen enlargement
  • Yellow skin or eyes (jaundice)
  • Ascites - an accumulation of fluid around the liver and intestine

Liver Cancer Diagnosis

There are no specific or standard or routine screening tests for liver cancer, some of the tests used or studied to screen for it are listed below:
  • Physical examination: on physical examination, cancer may be confirmed by the presence of an enlarged, tender liver. Also, for signs of jaundice your skin and eyes may be checked.
  • Blood tests: for liver problems many blood tests may be used.. As High AFP levels could be a sign of liver cancer, there is onespecific blood test to detect Alpha Feto-Protein (AFP). To confirm the normal functioning of the liver other blood tests are used.
  • Imaging Studies like Abdominal CT scan and Abdominal Ultrasound test
  • Liver biopsy or Aspiration.
  • Liver enzymes (liver function tests)
The following tests are done in order to check if the Liver Cancer has spread elsewhere in the body,
  • PET Scan
  • Bone Scan- to check if the cancer has spread to the bones.

Liver Cancer Treatment

The stage of Liver Cancer and the overall condition of the patient dictate the treatment options. The size, number, and site of tumors in the liver primarily determine the treatment to be given. The functioning of the Liver is checked before planning the appropriate treatment as also the spread of the cancer within and outside the liver is to be tested. The Various treatment options available are as follows:

Surgery: surgical intervention is done, if the tumours are of less than 5 cm in size and have not spread to the blood vessels. Partial hepatectomy is the surgery done to remove a portion of the liver.

Liver transplant: If the liver is fully damaged liver transplant is an option, provided suitable donated liver tissue can be found. Total hepatectomy (i.e. removal of complete liver) is done when healthy liver tissue from a donor is available, and it is replaced with the donated tissue.

Ablation: is the method used to destroy the cancer in the liver. Patients when are not able to undergo a surgery or a liver transplant, use this procedure and also when a liver donor is not available. Ablation is done in the following ways:
  • Radiofrequency ablation: to kill the cancer cells with heat a special probe containing tiny electrodes is used. To guide the probe to the tumor Ultrasound, CT, or MRI may be used.
  • Percutaneous ethanol injection: a thin needle is guided into the liver tumor with the help of an ultrasound. Thereafter through the needle Alcohol (ethanol) is injected which kills cancer cells. The procedure may be performed once or twice a week.
Embolization: An insertion of a tiny catheter is made into an artery in the leg and is moved to the hepatic artery. Thereafter through the catheter tiny sponges are injected which blocks the flow of blood through the artery. The tumor dies without blood flow from the hepatic artery. Till the time the hepatic artery is blocked the healthy liver tissue continues to receive blood from the hepatic portal vein.

Chemoembolization- (i.e. Embolization with Chemotherapy): before insertion of the tiny particles that block the blood flow an anticancer drug is injected into the artery. The drug stays in the liver for longer without blood flow, and thus the impact is more.

Targeted Therapy: targeted therapy is intended for people with liver cancer who can't have surgery or a liver transplant. Special drugs are used to slower the growth of liver tumors in this therapy. In it also blood supply is also reduced. The drug is administered orally.

Radiation Therapy: to kill cancer cells in radiotherapy high-energy rays are used. For patients who can't undergo surgery Radiation Therapy may be an option. At times it is accompanied with other treatments. To help relieve pain from liver cancer that has spread to the bones also Radiation therapy is used.


Liver Cancer Package

Inclusions

  • Airport Pick-up and Drop
  • Hospital Stay in a Private Room as indicated above. One attendant can stay with the patient.
  • Nursing & Diet charges.
  • Routine lab tests
  • Admitting Consultant's visit charges
  • Surgeon’s Fees and OT Charges

Exclusions

  • Hospital stay after the said period.
  • Visit charges after the said period.
  • Cross consultations, if any.
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